By: Nazia Adnin
My series of articles on Film Terminology began with first letter of English alphabet - A. Subsequently, “B” is my focused letter in this article. Here are film terminologies that start with “B”:
4) Below the line expenses: All physical production costs not included in the above-the-line expenses, including material costs, music rights, publicity, trailer, etc.
6) Blocking: A process of placing the actors on set where they will move and stand, so that lighting and camera placements may be set.
7) Blooper: A take of a scene not used in a movie, usually because of an on-camera mistake made by the cast or crew.
8) Body double aka Photo double: Body doubles are used to for shot requiring nudity or physical fitness. In such situation actor is replaced by a person who is up for nudity or suitable for particular scene.
10) Boom Operator: Member of the sound crew who operates the boom microphone.
11) Bounce Board: A large white card made of foam or poster board used to reflect soft light and for the soft key and fill.
12) Breakdown the script aka Breakdown: A detailed list of all items, people, props, equipment, etc required for a shoot on a day-by-day basis. Recording such lists aids in continuity and allows optimization of the time of actors and the crew.
By: Nazia Adnin
A film, is a series of still images which, when shown on a screen, creates the illusion of moving images. Film making itself is an art form. The process of making a film is both art and an industry simultaneously. Thus, it has long history and follows some rules or structure. Film language is one of the structures that every film industry especially Hollywood follows either on set or throughout the making process. Let’s have a look at some of the most used terminologies of the industry that begin with letter A:
2) Above the Line expenses: The major expenses committed to before production begins, including story/rights/continuity (writing); salaries for producers, director, and cast; travel and living; and production fees (if the project is bought from an earlier company). Everything else falls under below-the-line expenses.
6) Articulation Artist: A person who takes an artist's designs and builds them in a computer, so that animators can manipulate the figures to tell the story of the film.
By: Nazia Adnin
New Wave movement has shaped up the Japanese cinema while providing the world with amazing poetic social realism movies. A rebel group of directors were the pathfinders behind the revitalization of Japanese cinema. The directors were bold to do something new as they were tired of traditional forms of classical cinema.
The Japanese movement roughly developed around the same time with French New Wave. Japanese film makers got inspirations from the same sources as the French film makers. Auteur theory was developing along with French New Wave while independent film movement was growing rapidly with Japanese New Wave.
Depictions of racism, sexual violence, political radicalism etc were key themes of Japanese New Wave movies. Directors broke the taboos of social norms through their works of unorthodox editing techniques, shock effects and bold directions. Directors from this era used radical and traditional elements in the films. Watching those movies for first time was a shock for the audience.
The Sun Legend Of The End Of The Tokugawa Era (Yûzô Kawashima, 1957), A Wife Confesses (Yasuzo Masumura, 1961), God Speed You! Black Emperor (Mitsuo Yanagimachi, 1976), Punishment Room (Kon Ichikawa, 1956), Woman In The Dunes (Hiroshi Teshigahara, 1964), Branded To Kill (Seijun Suzuki, 1967), Intentions Of Murder (Shohei Imamura, 1964), Thirst For Love (Koreyoshi Kurahara, 1966), A Fugitive From The Past (Tomu Uchida, 1965) are few mention worthy Japanese movies from a long list. There are plenty of amazing Japanese movies out there.
If you are a movie buff or independent film maker, Japanese movies are great in order to learn and explore an amazing world of cinema.
By: Nazia Adnin
History of frame rate changed with the advancement of time. Early silent film had 16 to 24 FPS but since back then camera was hand crank, therefore, the rate of frame during the scene to adjust with the mood. Later on, the frame rate of silent movie was increased between 20 to 26 FPS.
There are three main frame rate standards in the TV and digital cinema industry such as: 24p, 25p, and 30p .There are higher rates as well and new ones are emerging including 48FOS, 50I, 60i, 72P etc. The Hobbit: An unexpected Journey was made at 48FPS.
High frame rates (HFR) are clearer and more realistic. Although, higher frame rates comes at higher cost. But it creates less motion blur however; the choice of frame rate is an aesthetic choice.